Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content up up on Television.Not all product which was taped had been coded.

Composite week sampling designs have already been found in past analysis that is content to acquire representative examples of tv development (Kunkel et al., 1999, 2001, 2003; Madden & Grube, 1994; Wallack, Grube, Madden, & Breed, 1990; Wilson et al., 1997). This sampling strategy involves arbitrarily picking times of the week or certain time slots for recording over many weeks to cut back prospective bias that would be introduced if all taping had been done within a solitary calendar week. Recording regarding the test took place mainly more than a period that is 7-week the autumn every year. Because season premiere episodes are staggered through the entire thirty days of September, we started taping when all nonsyndicated show had been showing episodes through the season that is current. Each week, three various times of the week had been arbitrarily chosen for taping from all 11 channels, along with a week for the week represented 3 times within the test. The 8-hour time block for taping extended from 3:00 p.m. (of which time youth that is most are away from college) to 11:00 p.m. (through prime- time). The entire process of recapturing missed episodes (like those which is why the satellite sign had been lost or the show was pre-empted by sporting or other unique events) continued for the winter time.

Not absolutely all product that has been taped had been coded.

As our focus ended up being on scripted development, we excluded day-to-day news broadcasts, game shows, sports programs and occasions, and paid programming, along with all kinds of commercials as well as other promotions ( e.g., teasers for community programs). Although music videos had been taped, they certainly were coded and analyzed individually because of their unique traits and are also maybe perhaps not reported right right here. The analyses introduced in this paper, nonetheless, do are the video that is nonmusic from cable music activity channels including talk shows, variety/comedy shows, and truth programs. In addition, demonstrates that had been incomplete since they started before 3:00 p.m. or ended after 11:00 p.m. are not coded. Finally, episode repeats had been eliminated through the test.

The last sample for the 2001-2002 period contains 1,276 unique system episodes, whereas the last test for the 2002-2003 period included 1,439 unique system episodes. The test when it comes to 2nd content analysis ended up being significantly bigger than the very first 12 months’s test once we produced concerted work in 12 months 2 to ensure we had three episodes of each and every nonsyndicated show. Despite strict adherence towards the sampling plan, extra taping ended up being required when, as an example, brand brand new shows joined the autumn lineup following the start of new season to replace for cancelled programs or as soon as the time and time slot for a string had been changed.


The codebook when it comes to bigger research had been based significantly on the variables manufactured by Kunkel and peers (1999, 2001, 2003) inside their content analyses conducted for the Kaiser Family Foundation. We created extra products, including those on same-sex behavior that is intimate sexual talk associated with nonheterosexuals. As opposed to Kunkel and peers, whom utilized the scene due to the fact main device of analysis, our content analyses involved coding for intimate content in 2-minute periods of system time. Because scenes differ dramatically in total and, hence, usually do not offer a continuing device of measure to make comparisons across programs, we utilized a coding that is standard according to time. Coding news development in designated time periods has been utilized often by other scientists conducting content analyses across different system genres including films, detergent operas, and music videos (Hazan, Lipton, & Glantz, 1994; Lowery, 1980; Roberts, Christenson, Henriksen, & Bandy, 2002; Roberts, Henriksen, & Christenson, 1999; Sommers-Flanagan, Sommers-Flanagan, & Davis, 1993; Stockwell & Glantz, 1997; Terre, Drabman, & Speer, 1991).

For purposes with this content analysis, intercourse ended up being understood to be any depiction of sexual intercourse, intimately suggestive behavior, or any mention sex or sex. To be conservative and prevent overcoding content that is sexual communications about intercourse were differentiated from nonsexual communications pertaining to relationship and relationships, that have been perhaps not coded. As an example, a declaration such as “I favor my boyfriend” wouldn’t be coded whereas a declaration such as “I made like to my boyfriend” will be coded.